Each player has a set of 20 Komas which consists of 1 Gyokushō[玉将（ぎょくしょう）](Ōshō[王将（おうしょう）]), 1 Hisha[飛車（ひしゃ）], 1 Kakugyō[角行（かくぎょう）], 2 Kinshō[金将（きんしょう）], 2 Ginshō[銀将（ぎんしょう）], 2 Keima[桂馬（けいま）], 2 Kyōsya[香車（きょうしゃ）] and 9 Fuhyō[歩兵（ふひょう）].
Each Koma has different movement and when a player moves Koma to a grid where the opponent's Koma is put, the player can take it.
Generally, higher-ranked or superior person uses Ōshō and the other uses Gyokushō. A player who deprives Gyokushō(Ōshō) is the winner.
When a Koma intrudes into the opponent's territory(3 columns from opponent's side), the player can choose to turn Koma(except Gyokushō and Kinshō) upside down or not.
Overturned Koma changes its name(Hisha → Ryūō[竜王（りゅうおう）], Kakugyō → Ryūma or Ryūme[竜馬（りゅうま or りゅうめ）], Ginshō → Narigin[成銀（なりぎん）], Keima → Narikei[成桂（なりけい）], Kyōsya → Narikyō[成香（なりきょう）] and Fuhyō → Tokin[と金（ときん）]) and each its movement also changes.
A player can use Koma which the player deprived of the opponent and put it on a empty grid according to the rule.
It is said that Shōgi originates from chaturanga in ancient India. Chaturanga is also the origin of chess and xiangqi[象棋] in China. It is thought that it was introduced into Japan by the Heian Period(794-1185).
The match of Sōkei Ōhashi[大橋宗桂（おおはしそうけい）] versus Sansa Hon'inbō[本因坊算砂（ほんいんぼうさんさ）] in 1607 is recorded as the oldest Shōgi game record in existence.
The above game is the most general way to play Shōgi and is also called Hon-shōgi[本将棋（ほんしょうぎ）]. But in Shōgi, there are various ways to play.
Hasami-shōgi[はさみ将棋] is a game only using Fuhyōs Each player deprives opponent's Koma by putting it between Komas. Shōgi-kuzushi[将棋崩し（しょうぎくずし）] is a game of taking away Komas without making sound from a pile of Komas.
Tendō[天童（てんどう）] City in Yamagata Prefecture is a major production area of Koma of Shōgi. In Tendō, the game of Shōgi using persons as Komas is held in April every year(It is called "Ningen-shōgi[人間将棋（にんげんしょうぎ）]".).
Ornamental Koma made in Tendō
Tendō Park: This is the venue of Ningen-shōgi.
photo by photolibrary